Brent, I will use the video on the left as opening, and I will speak at the beginning of the video. : ) It will take around 2 min. And, I will use this video as opening. Can you work on it? I remember you took many shots from here. We will use it multiple times during the video, especially when we talk about mele. 



Background music

Download
Faster tempo
Room 201.mp3
MP3 Audio File 2.0 MB

Slower Tempo

Download
Rm#201_slow.mp3
MP3 Audio File 2.4 MB

Slack Key, the recording result is not that good. But if we make it soft, it should be okay.

Download
Rm.201 Slack Key.mp3
MP3 Audio File 2.9 MB


Historical Background

The Polynesian Triangle comprises three island groups:

 

      Hawai`i at the north,

 

      Easter Island at the southeast,

 

      and the great islands of New Zealand at the southwest.

 

Around 1000 BC, the Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to Tonga and Samoa, traveling the Pacific in double-hulled canoes. The Marquesan voyagers began their exploration of the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 600 A.D. It was believed their canoes “could hold about 60 passengers and provisions for voyages lasting a month or more.”

 

When they embarked on their voyage across the Pacific, they navigated using the sun, stars, winds, and currents. During this period of exploration and trading, they carried “taro, yam, breadfruit, and coconut from island to island.” The second migration, from Tahiti, took place between 1000 and 1300.

Bread Fruit


Brent, I cannot find a video of the taro plant. Maybe you can find some from the videos. And, I left my "wild pigs" video in Hawai`i. : )

Below are the images that you can use (please double check that they are "free" to be used:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tuvalu

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ntugetaiwan/39341020945

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polynesian_Migration.svg

I bought this file from i-Stock, you can use.




In the late 18th century, the Hawaiian population numbered somewhere between 150,000 and 400,000 inhabitants living on the islands of Ni`ihau, Kauai, O`ahu, Molokai, Lāna`i, Kaho`olawe, Maui, and Hawai`i, which is currently called as the Big Island. Hawaiians believed the land and sea were owned by no one. “The land was considered the domain of the gods.” During this period most Hawaiians were fishermen and farmers, and they enjoyed a diverse environment from the abundant waters of the Pacific to the lush mountains.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hawaje.jpg

Brent,

I categorized the videos. You can definitely can take videos from the above collections. 






According to Kelly[1] ,

 

The value of cooperative, social labor was constantly reinforced by experience. . . All of life’s necessities were produced within the society. . . Everyone had access to its basic resources; distribution of the products of labor was primarily through gift giving or sharing among members of one’s extended family, `ohana, friends and neighbors . . . The basic socio-economic land unit was the ahupua’a. [2] 

 

The term ahupua’a means “a strip of land stretching inland from the seashore into the forest and often to the top of the mountain . . . needs being supplied by fishing grounds at the shore, forest land in the mountains.[3] [4] ” Diet consisted of fish, poi, and coconuts, as well as pork and chicken that, it was believed, came from livestock the Polynesians brought when they migrated to the islands.

Brent, you can use this song as a transition to what Carolee said about ahupua`a.

Download
Behold_Flyer_lo3_HD.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.4 MB

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahupuaa

https://www.flickr.com/photos/eekim/8301189638

This is in the video that you took during your first trip to Hawaii



Ancient Hawaiian religion was based on the Pantheon of Gods, similar to religions of other Polynesian cultures. There were four major gods: Kū, Kane, Lono, and Kanaloa, with Kane (Brent, do you have any pictures) being the supreme god. They ruled every aspect of Hawaiian life. The religion was similar to animism, where every single inanimate object, tree, animal, and even human had its own fate.

 

Due to the hierarchical order this ancient society established, the “. . . class structure . . . was characterized by the dominance of chiefs, ali`i, and priests, kāhuna, over commoners, maka`ainana.Ali’i, the priests, enjoyed a higher status because the Hawaiians believed ali’i had the closest relationship with the gods. The ali`i looked after the land and the welfare of the people, who consumed whatever they needed while protecting the bounty of nature.

 

During the pre-European period, Hawaiian religion was rife with taboos or kapu. Hawaiians abided by a set of basic tenets based on the relationship between them and their ancestors, descendants, and natural surroundings, with the world at large. Existence and religion were intertwined, and life in Hawai`i was relatively undisturbed.

 



A lot of what you took here are under sacred sites. You may use this. If you are unsure, please use this.

 



Captain Cook

Captain Cook

 

The voyage and exploration of Captain Cook marks the beginning of the post-European period in Hawai`i. Up to that point, the location of the islands ensured they were left relatively undisturbed, but that was about to change.

 

In January, 1778, Captain Cook continued his discovery voyage with two ships, the HMS Resolution and the HMS Discovery, at O`ahu, Kauai, and Ni`ihau. On January 17, 1779, Cook returned, but this time the ships landed at Kealakekua Bay on the island of Hawai`i.

 

As fortune would have it, their arrival coincided with the Makahiki season, when the natives welcomed Lono, the god of agriculture. During the celebration, which was marked by feasts and Olympic-style games, war was not allowed. Thus, the Hawaiians welcomed the visitors, offering them gifts and sustenance.

 

As time went by, the natives grew increasingly agitated, anxious for the group’s departure. Finally, on February 4, the crew set sail. Not far from Kealakekua, however, they ran into a storm that damaged the HMS Resolution, and Cook and his crew were forced to return to the bay. By this time the Makahiki season had ended, and they were no longer perceived as guests, but as enemies. While the ship was being repaired, a conflict ensued and Cook was killed at Kealakekua Bay.

This is Kealakekua Bay. You came here and took some videos.



Makahiki - There are some images here. But, I am unsure we can use.

https://www.nps.gov/hale/learn/historyculture/makahiki.htm

 





Between 1779 and 1820, the state of Hawai`i changed. Kamehameha the Great, a chief from the island of Hawai`i, defeated the Maui and O`ahu chiefs and became the first king to unite all of the islands. He moved the unified government to Honolulu, where the central location and deep harbor could support an increase in trade.

Brent,

you have a lot of videos and pictures of Kamehameha. I will let you choose. 

 

for the video on the left, need to edit.


Around 1820, Christianity was introduced in Hawai`i. Kamehameha’s favorite wife, Kaahumanu, converted and began to move away from the traditional kapu. “. . . people [were] giving up a religious system which had been theirs for centuries . . .”. Even though there was resistance to changing traditional beliefs, many Hawaiian values and much of its culture were lost starting at that time.

 


Brent, you also have a lot of Churches pictures. I will let you choose. 



Practicing Hawaiian traditions, including dancing the hula, was prohibited during the 19th and 20th centuries. Hawaiians were not allowed to speak their native language or practice their cultural rituals, and their culture in general was disparaged. It was not until “1967 the Hawai`i State Legislature amended a law to allow the giving of non-Christian first names to children born in Hawai`i. Before 1967, it was illegal to have a Hawaiian first name.” 


Brent,

Can we use the images here when Aaron was talking about the above paragraph:

  • https://www.ww2online.org/image/photograph-hula-dancer-hawaii-0
  • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hula_Girls_at_Honolulu_(1899).jpg
  • https://www.smithsonianmag.com/videos/category/arts-culture/the-meaning-behind-hula/

Then, end this part with Carolee's comments below. 

Brent, this video is choppy, I was trying to get important points



Brent, I cannot find the below quote!!! 0-(

 

Kupuna (honored elder) Carolee Nishi, a local musician and a fifth-generation Chinese descendent, expressed:

I personally spend many hours teaching chants which give our keiki a historical background of Hawai'i. Look how long it has taken to just bring the language back. . . It is hard to break through the many years of excluding the culture, the language and the music. Such a small percentage of our population knows the history and culture of the place in which they live. We are truly Americans but the heritage of the Hawaiian should not be overlooked due to our nationality. The Hawaiian heritage is suppressed a great deal by the importation of Americans and Asians who came to make their home here. It is good to have the blend of cultures but the Hawaiian tradition needs more [L1] 


 

Stop here, will work on the Hawaiian music later.